Friday, March 29, 2019
Telecommunications And Network Management Information Technology Essay
telecommunications And Net employment oversight education engineering EssayManaging the resources equal nurture Technology, telecommunications and communicate worry is similar as kindred structure a home. The to a greater extent work you take part and the more work you have to be finished. The bulk who atomic keep down 18 destroying nominate non fix the works of quantify and electrical works. So you should go for contractor to direct, watch and manage the unscathed project.The in a higher place condition is same for the IT Organizations. So, the Organization must have a contractor or supervisor to manage in all its guidance functions in spite of appearance it. The contractors or supervisors to manage the meshwork cargon functions in spite of appearance Organization atomic number 18 FCAPS and ITIL (Information Technology direction).This paper importantly explains more or less the good examples or regulates FCAPS and ITIL, their Life turns and excessively their reliable serve wells and similarly explained briefly about the TMN manikin. The blot, bod, Accounting, accomplishment and bail focal points be commonly known as FCAPS. FCAPS is a specimen only non a product and it is true by the outside(a) Telecommunications centre (ITU) and FCAPS is migrating its centerings from reactive state to proactive state. And in any case explains detailed description about Information Technology root word Library (ITIL) and their reliable service. ITIL provided operate for the IT organisations to tinge their commerce requirement inescapably and goals and it has set of best practices for managing IT function anxiety. IT plays truly important role in the cheeks business swear outes. ITIL put the organisations business process goals in a place and providing measurement process for those goals.However in that location be lot of surprises in the IT Organizations about these good examples (FCAPS and ITIL). Some of the profes sional recollect that they argon alternate approaches to r to each unrivalled the same goal. But whatever former(a) professionals speculate that they ar mutually exclusive. There are lot more confusions and comparisons about these frameworks. But now m whatsoever of the IT Organizations are adopting ITIL because of greater flexibilities of their run.KeywordsFCAPS, ITIL, ITIL serve and Information Technology advantage charge (ITSM), TMN, ITU.IntroductionThe electronic lucre heed is use to mention the large number of earningss, and those are oft in the areas such as telecommunications and computers. The lucre counsel is principal(prenominal)ly executes the functions such as certification, deployment, monitoring, controlling, allocating, coordination and planning. wherefore communicate way Models?The communicate direction is really polish to implement. So, in order to work the total intercommunicate focussing utterly we are breaking down network functions int o the little chunks. By implementing these half-sizeer chunks we rat push back the total management of the networks. For implementing all the network management functions we are victimization the network models. Those areTMN (Telecommunications guidance intercommunicate)FCAPS ( flaw, Configuration, Accounting, effectuation, Security perplexity)ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)All these models mainly involved in the business management in IT (Information Technology) organization and providing reliable or robust information base services to it is a main criteria of the network models. M whatsoever multinational companies considering these network models in top 10 position provided they are not giving top position. But the interesting thing is that some of the companies are not giving priority for these network Models for their business management. So, by this yield the companies are providing their services to customers to a lower place 20% and also the delivered products also not working more than 3 course of instructions. So the companies need to follow the Network Models for providing robust and reliable services to the clients and employees.FCAPS Model is running efficiently with TMN class but more is needed from this or extra magnetic declination of this model. And below explained more details about the network models.TMN (Telecommunications circumspection Network) ModelTMN is Telecommunication direction Network. The standard model was first essential by ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union- Telecommunications) in the year of 1993 and was updated in the year 1996. ITU-T recommended this model as a framework where service providers provide their services to deliver to the networks. It has provided layered architecture for antithetical levels of abstraction. The layered architecture as belowBML- moving in attention mouldSML- benefit focusing LayerNML-Network Management LayerEML-Element Management LayerThe abo ve layered architecture is the TMN logical layered architecture. By using this layered model architecture we can netherstand clearly how the IT Services appear on the network layers for their business needs and for better cognitive operation.FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Accounting, exploit, Security) ModelFCAPS was developed by the ITU-T in addition to the TMN layered architecture in the year of 1997. FCAPS is a model but not a product. The ITU-T initially developed this model for assisting how to manage telecommunication networks. It was also an ISO (International Organization for Standardization) model for the network management. The FCAPS framework is also called as Open System Interconnect (OSI) Network Management Model for network management implementations. This works ground on TMN Layer and performs their practicableity at each and every stage of TMN architecture layer.FCAPS Management The Standard ModelFCAPS management depends on OSI (Open System Interconnect). The OSI specifies five tonality areas which are under the FCAPS model. Those are Fault Management, Configuration Management, Accounting Management, Performance Management, and Security Management.F-Fault ManagementC- Configuration ManagementA- Accounting ManagementP- Performance ManagementS- Security ManagementFault Management (F)In this functional area it is apply as analysis of alarms and good lucks in the network. The network has talent to identify and isolate problems and providing information to appropriate person whom to deal with the problems. In this the network is always in a running status and the down era is minimized. The Fault management is the well known area of the network management. more than Functionalities of Fault Management are Fault detection, clear correction, fault correction, network recovery, fault isolation, alarm use, alarm filtering, alarm generation, diagnostic test, error logging, error handling and error statistics.EX CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solut ion) Device Fault Manager (DFM).CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solution) Device middle for troubleshooting.Configuration Management (C)In the configuration management functional area the network is controlled and monitored and maintaining the status of the networks. Installing new components against the hoary components and maintained care bountifuly by managing, recording and performing. In this area the main operations are routing tables, Service set identifier assignment, IP addressing scheme and maintain the information on the devices. One of the most important things a network manager can maintain a good network health by managing the device configurations.More functionalities of Configuration Management are preference initialization, network provisioning, auto discovery, respite and restore, resource shut down, change management, pre-provisioning, document management, copy configuration, remote configuration, job initiation and automated software distribution.EX Cisco Works LMS (LAN Management Solution) Resource Manager Essential (RME).LMS Campus Manager.LMS Cisco View.Accounting Management (A)The accounting management level is also called as allocation level. In this the network manager gathers the exploiter usage statistics and allocation of termss associated with the bills per time and providing services by the devices. One more privilege of accounting management is that allows actions of exploiters and better use of available resources.More functionalities of accounting management are supporting for different modes of accounting, audits, set quotes for usage, tracking the service, cost of the service, accounting limit, approve cost for more devices, fraud account.EX Cisco ingress manage Server (ACS) combined with LMS (LAN Management Solution) and NCM (Network Configuration Management).Performance Management (P)The performance of the networks depends upon the quality of networks and system statistics (Configurations). For better perf ormance, the network collects the selective information, maintaining the proper utilization of selective information, apologize from errors, maintaining the response time when the selective information is tracked and finally availability of information. Performance management is as simple as monitoring CPU and also as complex as end to end practical application monitoring.More functionalities of Performance Management are consistent performance level, performance data generation, and problem reporting, performance data collection, and static collection, performance data analysis, readiness planning and examining historical logs.EX CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solution) Internet Performance proctor (IPM).LMS Device Fault Manager (DFM).Security Management (S)The Security Management functional area defines the process and procedures for network security by defend the network from hackers and un classical users. We should have to hide the information to the unknown users possibl y. The network administrator can control individual user what he can do and what he cannot do with the system.More functionalities of Security Management are resource retrieve, data privacy, access logs, enable NE functions, user access rights checking, security alarm for event reporting, takes care of security, security audit tail log and security related information distribution.EX Cisco Access Control Server (ACS). LMS depends on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and other security Audits.Where does FCAPS fit?All the managements under the FCAPS are applicable to manage the applications. But managing the application is not same that managing a network. The applications have a set of problems that are affected by the network.EX VoIP Management using FCAPSFCAPS model is applicable for the vivification cycle of VoIP / IPT (Voice over Internet Protocol / information Protocol Telephony). But dont think this model is only applicable for the VoI P. VoIP is a application but not a network. This is also applicable in four stages of IT project life cycle. Those are planning, designing, deployment and in operational.FCAPS on other IT ServicesFor all samara factors of FCAPS framework has provided all-encompassing functionalities. The extended functionalities of FCAPS also called as ITEF (Information Technology wide Framework). The functionalities provided in the FCAPS are developed independent of operating system and any application typewrite. Those functionalities can work in any operating system, any applications types and support for different types of IT services.The extended functionalities for FCAPS on IT services are like a tree view structure so the consumer easily pilot to detailed level if he needed. The structure of FCAPS functionalities are given below.The extended functionalities provided by the FCAPS are used in different types of organizations particular propositionly for the IT Services. The IT service documen t mainly describes the category of coverage and individual services expound in the IT management.EX Change Management in Configuration ManagementThe change management is the extended functionality under the configuration management. It is for the authorizing, recording, monitoring and reporting all the services to the Open System environs. The primary responsibilities provided in the change management system areAuditable mechanism for handling all changes indoors the integrated management system.Review process for all authorising changes.Process for all changes tested and validated.Creating a mechanism for review change for not authorised from the change management process.ITSM (Information Technology Service Model)The IT Service Model is providing very important roles for the ITEF (Information Technology Extended Framework). The main structure of IT Service Model as belowFault ManagementBackup Recovery chance RecoveryUser data restorationPolicyChargeback Service levelsProcedure sEscalation Service RequestThis ITSM (Information Technology Service Model) can be implemented in all the platforms to create the Service take aim descriptions and to create SLAs (Service Level Agreements) amongst the IT resource provider organizations and the end-user consumer organizations.The below example explains the sample Service Level Description of IT Service user data backup can be used as a guideline and should be modified and congruous to local data centre policies and conventions.Service Name User data backupSchedule of the Service Maintenance Window Task.Service Levels thrill fine LevelThe user data entrust be stored in the central management backup system where data will be stored in daily based services. So, we can snuff it the data backup from the central management system. They will be charge you for getting the user data to back.Charge for backup data in Mission Critical levelThe cost will be blow0$ + 8$ per 100 GB capacity of data per one month. fear Criti cal LevelIn the business captious level the user data will be stored in to the central management backup system on weekly basis and daily additive services. The cost will be quite less when compared to the mission critical level.Charge for backup data in Business critical levelThe cost will be 500 + 60$ per 100GB capacity of data per a one month.Business acquit LevelIn the business support level the user data will be store in to the local link file system on weekly basis and daily incremental basis. The cost will be very low compared to the mission critical and business critical levels.Charge for backup data in Business Support levelThe cost will be 200$ + 40$ per 100GB capacity of data per a one month.Applying ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) tour FCAPS is a great model to defining and understanding of the Network Management objectives, and another framework come in for giving best services for network management with the alignment of current IT organization structure and expands to the FCAPS framework Model. That is ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library).The Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) from United farming created the ITIL in the year of 1978 to grown up the Information Technology to ache the business needs and goals. This is developed by the experienced and talented people in the UK and by the practitioners in worldwide. The IBM Company is using the ITIL libraries for the best practices and consequently the official versions of the ITIL beginning to release. The modish version is ITIL v3 which was released in the year of 2007. This ITIL is customizable framework for giving quality services and avoiding some faults in the current Information Technology. The ITIL can be used for better IT Service independent of type and size of the organization, multinational or Region Company, centralised or decentralized IT provision, an IT company with only one employee.The ITIL (IT Infrastructure Library) has seven locomote to implement. Those are Service Support, Service speech, and Planning to implement Service Management, Information and confabulation Technology Infrastructure Management, Application Management, Security Management and the business prospective. The main component of ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) is divided into following different sections. Those areITIL Service DeliveryITIL Service SupportITIL Security ManagementITIL Information Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure ManagementITIL Application ManagementITIL packet Asset ManagementThe Business Prospective.ITIL Service DeliveryThe Service Delivery is the key factor in providing the services over the network and should be able to deliver consistently. And it is also used for managing the IT Services and involvement of number of IT Service management practices agreed between the service provider and the customer.Service Delivery has 5 disciplines. Those areService Level Management capa citor Management persistency Managementavailableness ManagementIT Financial ManagementThe Service Level Management is mainly concentrates on the monitoring and assignment of IT services provided in the SLAs (Service Level Agreements). It is also used to provide arrangements with the international service suppliers and the internal service providers in the form of an OLAs (Operational Level Agreements). responsibleness of Service Level Management is to take care of agreed IT services to supply to the appropriate persons or organizations within the time management.The Capacity Management is defending the cost effective and the best IT services by assist the organizations in order to match their business needs.The activities of Capacity Management are Workload Management, Capacity Planning, Resource Management, Performance Management, Modelling, Demand Managements and Application Size.The Continuity Management is supports the proactive measurement of IT Service. It easily identifies the error before get to process so that makes the IT Service can in continuous way.The responsibility of Continuity Management is performing the risk management to identify threats, assets for each IT Service and also able to give options of the recovering the IT Service.The Availability Management is targets the industries or organizations should check out the availability of IT Services with low cost to run the organization in a perfect way.The activity of the Availability Management is mainly concentrates on reliability, Serviceability, Resilience, Security and maintainability of the IT Services.The Finance Management is ensuring that the base of the IT Organization is cost effective. We used to calculating the cost of the IT services often so that we can estimate the cost of the IT services in the organization. We can recover the costs by providing the customer services to the customers.ITIL Service SupportITIL Service Support is the most typical Network Operation Centre (NOC ) in all organizations. This is mainly concentrates on applications those are required by the end users. The operations are troubleshooting, supporting new applications over the network and help desk. The best practice of those Service Delivery disciplines that is used to enable the IT services to work effectively. ITIL Service Support has 6 disciplines. Those areConfiguration ManagementIncident ManagementProblem ManagementChange ManagementService / Help DeskRelease Management.In the above disciplines the Problem Management identifying the applications which have some faults and giving troubleshooting speciality of those applications to run perfectly and also solves performance problems in the environment. To solve the problems in the network environment by troubleshooting you will be having good understanding of networks and their configurations are required. We can get those configurations by using another discipline using configuration management for this we have to refer configu ration management database. The change management is involves with the twain problem management and configuration management. If the management has made problems with the infrastructure so definitely thither will be changes with the configuration then some problem raised with the configuration. The service will be help full in implementing other factors like PC to client PC butt inations and implementation and designing of networks and some other duties.The total 11 ITIL disciplines are used for reducing the costs, to work operations effectively, and for better alignment of IT and business needs and goals.ITIL Security ManagementThe most important key role for the network management is the security. The external hackers or threats access data through firewalls and based on access permissions. We can gain the security by using proper configuration of network rights and permissions to the users that make the unauthorised users cannot access the data from end users.ITIL Infrastructur e ManagementThe Infrastructure Management is concentrates on installations and configurations of network designs in the organizations. Generally in the big organizations the designing and troubleshooting of networks are case-hardened as separate entity than the installation equipment. So that is the reason for IT organizations required immaculate configurations.ITIL Application ManagementThe application management is mainly concentrated on whether the application is able to configure and design to implement in the organization environment or not. Some applications are giving late signals and not providing some other links in it. So this maintains the proper application providing suitable services delivered to the end users.ITIL package Asset ManagementThe ITIL Software Asset Management is essential for every organization. This is mainly deals with the installation steps for software, their license periods and also giving some partial configuration of that particular software. It gives so overmuch information before going to install software and also providing in how many instances a software can install in a drive. This is essential for a big or small organization to run IT operations. So, this is very important for the network management.In the version ITIL v2 only two developed modules of Service support for IT Services and Service Delivery of IT Services are included. But in the next and the latest version ITIL v3 has included lot of modules which will help to increase the energy of IT Services and their business needs. thus far though it has included lot of services to increase the IT standards to the top level but some mischiefs are there to decrease the services.Comparisons of FCAPS and ITIL frameworksIf we understand both FCPAS and ITIL frameworks that are overlapped with some concepts while addressing. In both the frameworks, they have completed their stages which are not associated with the specific instance. initially the FCAPS model is mainly concentrates on the different types of management levels with the help of TMN layered network model. But another important framework ITIL is mainly concentrates on the IT Organization to run efficiently with the help of their suitable services.There are lot of advantages and inconsiderable disadvantages in both of the frameworks. Still the professionals have confusion about what to start? And which framework is suitable for their organization? Now International Organizations are adopting the ITIL frameworks within the organization for great success of their services and much more savings of money while operating it.Why ITIL and Why not FCAPSInitially all the international organizations using the FCAPS model and after on it was dominated and get down by the latest model that is ITIL.Now every Organization looking to implement the new things within the money management, and they have observed that ITIL is the better option to reduce their expenses when compared to FCAPS model. So, th is is one of the key successes of ITIL.One more factor supports the ITIL, ITIL is used to manage and channelise different IT deportments of problems at a time with one comprehensive volume. Where as in FCAPS we have consider the deportment separately and recovered from the problems.another(prenominal) factor that let down the FCAPS service is that in the traditional environment of FCAPS model is a wired network with clear description of ranked architecture with deterministic behaviour of end points. Unlike WLANs (Wireless Local world Networks), there are some factors effecting the wired network environment. But on the other side wireless networks which rules the world and many factors effect on it. By using wireless based networks they can change dynamically IP (Internet Protocol) address, location and status of their connectivity. But the dynamic nature of Clients connectivity is not a fault there is no client specific management in the FCAPS. FCAPS is a useful tool and this can be used in the traditional environment but cannot be used in the wireless related networks.Another beef of FCAPS that will tells you if there is a problem raised in the services of network management but it wont tell the address of the problem, how to repair it and how to resolve complex office staff at the same time.ITIL has gained the tremendous success when it was executed in different organisations under different circumstances in different parts of the world.Even though ITIL has lot of advantages for IT Management but there are some inconsiderable disadvantages that are raised by the IT professionals. ITIL is comprehensive to implement the IT Management. The publications of ITIL are also saying that it is not holistic to implement IT.Another disadvantage raised by the IT Professionals that is even though ITIL is mostly accepted by the IT Managers for business needs this led to skip some of the pragmatic solutions for their business needs and this is unacceptable.The FCAPS mod el can handle fault and configuration management perfectly but the organizations depend on other tools to implement security related issues. The ITIL deals total managements including security clearly.ConclusionNMRU is Network Management R Us is prestigious company in the UK. All Network Management companies must follow the network management models like TMN, FCAPS and ITIL for better performance, security, identifying and resolution future network problems. The company currently NMRU using the FCAPS model and this model usually layered with TMN. There are new features arrived in the UK common Sector and now wanted to migrate to the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL).