Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Whats in a Portrait? :: essays research papers fc

What’s in a Portrait?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What’s in a portrait? Is it simply just a photographic image of a person only done in oil paints, or is there much more to it? Is a portrait a way of peeling away the layers of a person and visually representing who they really are? Gericault’s Monomania: Portrait of an Excessively Jealous Woman and Cezanne’s Madame Cezanne in the Conservatory are both portraits of women. Even though these paintings are portraits of women they are completely different portraits. These are not just paintings depicting two different women. They show us who they really are, or what they meant to the artist. The artists paint them in a way that represents how history and time period affect the way and artists paints.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Gericault’s Monomania: Portrait of and Excessively Jealous Woman, the artist captures the pure emotion of a woman suffering from a debilitating mental disease. The composition is symmetrical for the most part and the subject is positioned in the center of the canvas, which emphasizes her more as a point of focus. The brushwork is visible, but disappears around her face where there is great detail to clearly show her emotional state. The rest of her contains very visible brushwork, and it’s very sketchy. Most of her body doesn’t even seem to be brushed, but more like the paint has been blocked in with a palette knife, thus making the details of the face stand out more. Contours have been completely eliminated in this painting; he uses direct tone and color instead to convey the painting. There seems to be no direct light source everything seems to be in the dark, perhaps hinting at the subject’s mental state of mind. The only thing th at seems remotely lit up is the women’s face drawing more attention to the expression on it. The colors are of a darker palette, and there is a slight sense of complimentary colors with the red and a very deep dark green. The repetition of the color red in her clothes and again in her eyes is a very strong emphasis in this painting. It helps draw more attention to her expression thus adding more emotional content to the painitng. Plus, the red in her eyes alludes to her instability. There is no sense of deep space. The women seems have been painted from straight on, although there is something to the right of the artist that is drawing her attention that way, quite possibly making her have her present expression.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Miracle of the Crib at Greccio

Name: Marco Yu Ming Chan Date: 6 September, 2012 Professor Kate Dimitrova The Work of Art. The Miracle of the Crib at Greccio (Legend of St. Francis- 13. Institution of the Crib at Greccio), Portrait by Giotto Di Bondone, 1297-1300, church of St. Francis, Assisi, Italy. Book Resources Cynthia Ho, Beth A. Mulvaney, and John K. Downey. Finding Saint Francis in literature and art. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. The three authors created and edited this book a big collection of essays, which they are about St.Francis, and some art works and texts about him, with the knowledge, tools and technics now-a-days, to study his life in a different view. William R. Cook. The art of the Franciscan Order in Italy. Leiden ; Boston : Brill 2005. Though the book is not directly about â€Å"The Miracle of the Crib at Greecio†, It’s about all the works related to St Francis. There are also some article that talks about this piece of work, and the different background of it. It’ s combined by essays from The United States and The Great Britain, studying franciscan art in late medieval and early Renaissance Italy.Essays Rosenthal Erwin, â€Å"The Crib of Greccio and Franciscan Realism† The Art Bulletin (Mar 1954): 57-60. This article begins with a research in 1926, explaining the differences of the view of the relationships between St. Francis, Nature and Art before and after the first quarter of the twentieth century. It talks about the old idea of how St. Francis respected and instructed nature (animals) and thinks it’s all connected with God, and how some art works like â€Å"The Cribs of Greecio† are so different and a new interpretation of his influence on arts.Ursula Schlegel, â€Å"The Christchild as Devotional Image in Medieval Italian Sculpture: A Contribution to Ambrogio Lorenzetti Studies† The Art Bulletin (March 1970): 1-10. This article introduces and compare some pieces of art works that are related to St. Francis it self and the Christ. Some of them made St Francis to be the â€Å"second Christ† and some of them are showing the picture that he’s holding the Christ (the miracle in Greecio).It talks a lot about what the relationship between those art works and the piece â€Å"Christchild†, but still, there are some informations and background about â€Å"The Miracle of the crib at Greecio†. Web Sites N/A. â€Å"Saint Francis cycle in the Upper Church of San Francesco at Assisi† wikimedia commons, March 2012.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Communication in Organisational Behaviour - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2613 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The purpose of this report is to understand the concepts of communication in organizational behaviour and afterwards evaluate an article based on the current understanding of the subject. The term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"communicationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ refers to the transmission of information and exchange of meaning between at least two people with the aim of having an impact on the recipient. What is the need for effective and appropriate communication? Communication affects the performance and individual performance within an organisation as well as the overall performance. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Communication in Organisational Behaviour" essay for you Create order As many people do not work alone, managers interact with many people which takes up a great deal of their time. Society today is very diverse and multi-cultural, due to this sensitivity of other cultures is crucial to achieve effective cross-cultural communication. Every important thing that happens within an organization involves some degree of communication. Some of these include purchasing supplies, providing feedback, hiring/ training staff, customer service, strategy, meetings and overcoming problems. As communication is crucial to these operations , interruptions to this can have detrimental effects. These interruptions include hierarchies, power differences , the nature of employment and rules. Ineffective communication can cause many problems that can impact relationships, productivity, job satisfaction, and morale as we interact in organizations. Gerald Goldhaber summarizes Osmo Wiioà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“lawsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  of communication that are go od to remember as you interact in increasingly complex organizations. Wiio pessimistically warns that: 1) If communication can fail, it will fail, 2) If a message can be understood in different ways, it will be misunderstood in the manner that does the most damage, 3) The more communication there is, the more tricky it is for the communication to be successful, and 4) There is always someone who thinks they know better what you said than you do. Cultural differences Non-verbal and verbal communication differs from culture to culture. In japan, the gestures of smiling and nodding show an understanding but not necessarily agreement. In various Asian cultures, it is impolite to give superiors direct and prolonged eye contact; a bowed head shows deference and not a lack of self-confidence or defensiveness. In Australia, when people raise the pitch of their voice at the end of a sentence, it signifies openness to a challenge or question. Northern European cultures like a lot of per sonal space and rarely touch each other. In contrast to this, Italians and Latin Americans stand closer together and touch more to indicate friendship and agreement. There are many other variations within other cultures. When cultural differences are understood, it is easy to make people feel included/engaged as well as making sure the information you are giving them is not misunderstood. Vertical Communication Vertical communication happens between people in hierarchy positions and can involve downward and upward communications. Larkin and Larkin (1994) suggest that downward communication is more effective when top managers communicate with immediate supervisors and immediate supervisors communicate with their staff. A range of evidence shows that that increasing the power of immediate supervisors increases both satisfaction and performance among employees. This was proposed by Donald Pelz (1952) and is referred to as the Pelz effect.Jablin (1980), after looking at 30 year s of research, pronounced the Pelz effect to be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“one of the most widely accepted propositions about organizational communication.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Downward communication This is more than just sending information to subordinates. It can involve managing the tone of the message and showing skill in delegation to make sure the job is done well by the right person. There is a degree of certainty that the best approach to downward communication (Jablin 1980 ) is: Top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors. Immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. With issues of importance, top management should follow up by directly communicating with staff. Upward Communication Less is known about upward communication, however one finding thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s consistent is that staff satisfaction with upward communication is lower that their satisfaction with downward communication. Larkin and Larkin (1994) discovered a low level of satisfaction with all the methods used to improve upward communication. These methods included staff surveys, grievance programs and staff participation programs. McCelland (1988) found a number of employee-based reasons why upward communication tends to be poor, including: fear of reprisal, filters and time. Lateral communication Lateral communication entails communication with people who donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t belong in a hierarchical relation to each other. Studies regarding lateral communication are still behind those studies of vertical communication. It is thought that lateral communication at the employee worker level have less problems, at least within a functional area. However, with more importance on teams, extra attention is now being aimed at team members communicating. Lateral communications between workers in different functional areas is also becoming a greater concern as more attention is being directed at increasing the speed of producti on through simultaneous, as opposed to sequential, work processes. Diagonal Communication Diagonal communication is where information is sent between two employees of different departments and different levels. Some experts in this area define diagonal communication as the method of sharing information between various structural levels in an organization. Verbal communication relies of spoken or written words to pass on information with others. It is a process where people have a discussion and are exposed to new information Verbal communication: Verbal communication refers to oral or written responses, which are both contrasted to non-verbal communications. The way people get the information they need during verbal communication is through various questioning techniques: Open à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This technique introduces a subject to enable a further discussion Closed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" To retrieve factual information in the form of yes/no Probe à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢ €Å" This follows an open question to retrieve more information Reflective à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This is used to display concern/interest Multiple à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This technique gives the listener a choice of questions to respond to Leading à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" To get the answer that you expect to hear Hypothetical à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This technique encourages creative thoughts By using and understanding these range of techniques it is easy to analyse techniques used by others and put across your response more effectively. Non-verbal communication : When people communicate face to face, signs, expressions, gestures, postures and vocal mannerisms are constantly sending and receiving messages. Factual information is mainly coded and transmitted by verbal methods. Feelings and emotions as well as the strength of these feelings are coded and transmitted through non-verbal communication. A more popular term for non-verbal communication is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"body languag eà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Maureen Guirdham (1995, p.165) lists 136 non-verbal communications in 9 categories: mouth behaviour, eyelids/eyes, eyebrows, gaze, facial expression, head movements, hands/arms, lower limbs and trunk movements. The mouth category has 40 behaviours (grin, yawn, smile, sneer etc.) The technical terms for non-verbal communications are: Occulesics à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"eye behaviour Kinesics à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Body and limb movements Proxemics à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the use of space Paralanguage à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the tone and pitch of voice Facial expression Posture Chromatics à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" use of colour Chronemics à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" use of time Haptics à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" bodily contacts Overall the following channels are in order from lean to rich. Rich meaning a higher personal presence: Intranet/shared drive Fax Letter Voice mail Pager E-mail Instant message Phone call Face-to-face (two people) Teleco nference (internal and external participants) Videoconference (internal and external participants) Meeting (entire team) Formal communication: messages that are being transferred on regulated, preset channels, of an organization is formal communication. The content of the communication is related to the organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s activity, to the work and to anything which is related to those. formal communicationcan contain a verbal or nonverbal message, written, under the shape of letters, telephone messages. There can also be gestures within formal communication. The messages are sent by the authorized people: via official channels. Normally, formal communicationsis recorded and kept within an organization. Copies of these are kept by the transmitter, by the receiver, by all of the desks from the organization which need to know and keep the information. Informal communication: Informal communication comes from all the channels that exist outside of the f ormal channels, also knows as a grapevine. It exists around the social affiliation of people from the organization. Authority lines do not follow informal communication where they do with formal communication Due to the individual needs of people from an organization informal communication takes place. Normally this communication is oral and may be express via a simple glance, sign or silence. It is spontaneous, multi-dimensional, diverse and implicit. It usually works in groups of people where one person has some interesting information; they then pass it on to their informal group and so on. Organizations can use informal channels efficiently to fortify the channels or communication. It acts as an effective way of expressing specific information that canà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t be transferred via formal channels. This satisfies peoples desires to identify what is happening in an organization and provides opportunities to express worries, dreads and complaints. Informal communi cation also facilitates to ameliorate managerial decisions as more people are involved in the process of decision-making. Impression management In an organisation it is very important to control the image and impressions that others perceive, this can be achieved through impression management. Paul Rosenfeld (2001) observed that impression management methods include: what we do/how we say it, what we say/ how we say it, the furnishings and arrangements of offices, physical appearance, facial expressions and posture. To achieve good impression management, it involves always being aware of cues that are sent through verbal and non-verbal communication. How to choose an appropriate channel There are many channels available for communication but to choose an appropriate one it is important to understand a few factors Firstly you should consider the elements within the message you wish to send. If the message is personal then a channel such as a telephone call or fac e to face should be chosen. If it is informal then it is appropriate to use email or a letter. Secondly speed of feedback should be considered. If a fast reply is required then use a telephone call or instant message. If it is not important then use an email or arrange a meeting. Thirdly if a permanent record of communication is needed (mainly for a business purpose) then a message should be given via email, memo or letters. Barriers Language à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It can be within just one country where language/accent variations make communication more difficult Differences in gender à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" communication styles are different between men and women Physical surroundings à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the size/layout of rooms affect the ability to see other people and readiness to partake in conversations Cultural diversity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" cultures have different expectations towards formal and informal communication; a lack of these understandings can cause misun derstanding Power differences à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" employees distort upward communication, also those higher up the hierarchy have a limited understanding to those in lower ranks. How to improve communication Face to face à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" When someone is able to talk to somebody directly, feedback can be used to check the coding and decoding processes, and to correct mistakes and misunderstandings. Place time à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" If a message is given at the wrong time or the wrong place it is likely to not be interpreted correctly, or could be ignored. So the time and place should be chosen with care. Reality check à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" people should not assume that others will understand messages in the way others intend, it should also be checked how messages have been interpreted. Empathetic listening à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" It is important to see and understand other peoples points of view The article recommends the following points to improve organizational communi cation Shared purpose à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The purpose of an organisation is to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"express the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s primary value. It is the end to which the strategy is directed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" (Ellsworth 2002) therefore it is important to establish what employees understand their organisations purpose. If employees have a shared purpose they all know what they are striving towards and feel closer to higher management as they are working towards the same goal. Whereas management donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t usually understand the roles of those lower in the hierarchy, this will help to resolve this as they have a common goal; making communication easier. Where management and employees are brought closer together due to a shared goal, this helps to overcome the barrier of power differences described earlier. Where organisations do not have this shared sense of purpose and make decisions in private with just the highest management it is unlikely to reach other e mployees , resulting in a breakdown of communication. Due to this a shared purpose does show to improve communication Engage your people This verdict and definition forwarded by Institute of Employment Studies gives a clear insight that employee engagement is the result of two-way relationship between employer and employee pointing out that there are things to be done by both sides. Furthermore, Fernandez (2007) shows the distinction between job satisfaction, the well-known construct in management, and engagement contending that employee satisfaction is not the same as employee engagement and since managers can not rely on employee satisfaction to help retain the best and the brightest, employee engagement becomes a critical concept. Managers should promote two-way communication. Clear and consistent communication of what is expected of them paves the way for engaged workforce. Development Dimensions International (DDI, 2005) states that a manager must do five things to create a highly engaged workforce. They are: Align efforts with strategy Empower Promote and encourage teamwork and collaboration Help people grow and develop Provide support and recognition where appropriate After surveying 10,000 NHS employees in Great Britain, Institute of Employment Studies (Robinson et al., 2004) points out that the key driver of employee engagement is a sense of feeling valued and involved, which has the components such as involvement in decision making, the extent to which employees feel able to voice their ideas and have better communication, the opportunities employees have to develop their jobs and the extent to which the organization is concerned for employeesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ health and well-being. Cultural differences should also be taken into account to make sure all employees achieve effective communication and therefore feel more engaged, some of these cultures are described earlier. Consider your channels à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the article in question suggests that considering channels is important in improving overall communication. Referring to the theory mentioned earlier it is important to recognise what you want to get from a conversation/discussion. If you are seeking information then you should use the appropriate questioning techniques. By considering channels, messages can be successfully coded and decoded between the sender and receiver. Information will not be misinterpreted or ignored and can be passed on effectively. This all improves communication Measure communication measurement is possible with some discipline before a project begins and after it is completed. Award-winning business communicator, Ann Wylie, says an alternative to proving cause and effect is to demonstrate a correlation between our efforts and the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s success by establishing that communication was received, believed and acted upon. There are several ways to quantify a communic ation effort. One is to establish clear goals at the beginning of the project: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Active participation in Open Enrollment will increase by 30 percentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ; or you could conduct a content analysis. Wylie recommends using a matrix to determine the percentage of your publicationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s content devoted to a particular message in order to get to quantitative data about the number of times the message was created and delivered. Gibson, J.W., and R.M. Hodgetts. 1991. Organizational Communication à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" A Managerial Perspective. 2nd Edition. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Argyris, C. (2011). Organizational traps: Leadership, culture, organizational design. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Canary, H. (2011). Communication and organizational knowledge: Contemporary issues for theory and practice. Florence, KY: Taylor Francis. Greenberg, J., Baron, R. A. (2010). Behavior in organizations (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Jablin, F. M., Sias, P. M. (2001). Communication competence. In F. M. Jablin L. L. Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research, and methods (pp. 819-864). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Reason USA got Involved in Vietnam - 1430 Words

The Reason USA got Involved in Vietnam At the beginning of World War 2 Vietnam, a small country to the south of China, was under the control of the French. However, The Chinese had control before the war. The Chinese rule had influenced the Vietnamese who based their everyday lives on the Chinese ways of life. E.g. Language, as the French took power Vietnam had to take a dramatic change in the way that they lived. They had to become Catholic, like the French, which was not very popular as they had already become Buddhist and were not ready to change their religion. The Vietnamese started to attack the Catholic priests to try and keep Vietnam as a Buddhist country. As a result to the actions taken†¦show more content†¦America offered financial backing and stability to any country that accepted capitalism and became democratic. Truman felt that a lot of communist countries would be competing for power in and around Europe so he thought it was Americas duty to protect Europe from this competition and save it from communism. However, they also felt that it was vital to stop communism in Vietnam and to stop Ho Chi Minh. In America they created and passed the Alien act, which prohibited anyone from plotting against the government. It was passed because of the feeling o undermining over the American communist party. So, The American people were encouraged to accuse others of holding left wing views. The leaders of the American communist party were arrested. Previous to Vietnam, The USA had already tried to ban communism in Korea and Cuba. During the Korean war North Korea was communist whereas the south was anti-communist. Russia and the peoples republic of China assisted the north. The south however, was assisted by three major world powers. USA, Britain and France. June 25th 1950 - North Korea sent 135,000 troops into the south. President Truman decided that he would help the south so he sent in ships and advisors along with troops to try and cut short the journey made by the northern troops and force them back up north. McArthur wanted to send theShow MoreRelatedEssay on The War in Vietnam1662 Words   |  7 PagesThe War in Vietnam America became increasingly involved in the war in Vietnam, mainly because of the domino theory, the fear of the spread of communism. If South Vietnam fell to the communist the US feared that communism would spread throughout Asia and to neighbouring countries. The influence of the previous presidents also caused another main reason for the US to become more involved in Vietnam. But there is one underlining fact; if the ‘French had not left, AmericaRead MoreUnited States Involvement in Vietnam Essay1302 Words   |  6 PagesStates Involvement in Vietnam The end of World War Two was the beginning of Americas worries about Communism. They feared that it would spread throughout the countries of the world. Because of this President Truman made the Truman Doctrine. This said that America would help any nation threatened by Communism. He said that he would lead containment in the spread of Communism and the Soviet Unions expansion. The doctrine came from the USA believing that EasternRead MoreThe United States Involvement In The War In Vietnam Essay examples1731 Words   |  7 PagesUnited States Involvement In The War In Vietnam There were many reasons why the US became increasingly involved in the Vietnam War, and when all linked together they explain why. In this essay I will explain all aspects of why the US got involved and then I will summarise all the points at the end. Since the 1880’s, France had controlled an area of eastern Asia called Indo-China, which consisted of Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. In 1940, France was at war with GermanyRead MoreEssay on The Cold War from 1950-19801739 Words   |  7 PagesCold War spread from the traditional playing field of Europe to other parts of the world. However it is quite clear that the USA and the Soviet Union played only a marginal role in originating these conflicts-at the most setting up the basic framework for it to occur. Furthermore, when they did get involved they each did so to varying degrees. The USA seemed to be much more motivated and interested in involving themselves, while the Soviet Union was more apprehensive. ThereforeRead MoreUnited States Withdrawal From Vietnam Essay1142 Words   |  5 PagesUnited States Withdrawal From Vietnam America went to war in Vietnam with an aim of destroying the Vietcong to protect South Vietnam from Communism. America was against communism and they wanted to stop the spread of it. They did not achieve what they set out to do as they had many boundaries in their way. Events both inside and outside of Vietnam led to the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. I am going to be looking at the reasons as to why American troopsRead MoreMilitary Tactics used by the USA and the Vietcong Essay968 Words   |  4 PagesMilitary Tactics used by the USA and the Vietcong The USA was a richer 1st world country than Vietnam, meaning it was better equipped for a military attacks. It had: more and better weapons; better access to well trained soldiers; a good military understanding; good transportation and was generally better equipped for traditional styles of warfare. Vietnam was a 3rd world country. It had: limited access to weapons; few funds to train soldiers and a poorer militaryRead MoreWhat Is Civil Conflict Intervention? Essay1636 Words   |  7 PagesCivil Conflict Intervention? Civil intervention is a sensitive topic to discuss. Is it the obligation of other countries to get involved with civil affairs that take place in foreign lands? Is there a responsibility amongst the international community to aid people, who’s rights have been violated? Many people would argue yes to these questions; however, there are several reasons why countries should never intervene in civil conflict. The words that must first be outlined and understood to properly toRead MoreAssessment of United States Performance in the Vietnam War Essay1431 Words   |  6 PagesAssessment of United States Performance in the Vietnam War The quote is saying that the USA should have won the Vietnam War because they had better weapons and better trained soldiers than the Vietcong. This can be split into 2 parts: ‘America should have won’ and, ‘America had better weapons and training than the Vietcong’. I agree with the first part because America should have won the Vietnam War as they are very powerful. I disagree with the second part because Read MoreWhy the United Sates Became Increasingly Involved in the Vietnam War1383 Words   |  6 PagesWhy the United Sates Became Increasingly Involved in the Vietnam War The United States became involved in the war in Vietnam for many reasons. The main reason of which is the Cold War. No fighting between the two countries actually took place due to both countries owning nuclear weapons which were used as a deterrent but got at each other by involving themselves in the issues of other countries that had a knock on effect on each other. The Cold War was a war that initiated Read MoreCommitment Trap1030 Words   |  5 PagesWith regards to Vietnam under Kennedys presidency, there are many arguments both for and against the idea of commitment trap, Kennedy certainly escalated military involvement in Vietnam but did he have a choice? Or had his predecessors committed him in Vietnam long before he came into the Whitehouse? There is no doubt that Johnson was the one who fully placed ground troops in Vietnam in 65 and created his legacy of Johnsons war, but did any of the previous presidents give him any other option

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Function of Desire in Relationships Between a Man and...

The structure and function of different types of sexual relationships were an important part of Athenian culture, and many rules and traditions formed around these relationships based on the mores of society. The male citizens were considered the most important segment of the population, and many Greek writers address the cultural conventions, ideals, and beliefs that formed around these relationships. The three main types of sexual relationships that involved a male citizen are marriage, the relationship between a young man and an older mentor, and sexual encounters with prostitutes. Plato’s Symposium, a dialog on the nature of love and desire, describes many of the beliefs that Athenians held, especially about the relationship between†¦show more content†¦According Pausanius, one of the speakers in the Symposium, the highest form of love was the kind that formed between two men. While relationships with a woman or a youth could be characterized by the carnal love of common Aphrodite, only the relationships between males- either two men of the same age or between a man and a youth- could contain the intellectual and emotional love of celestial Aphrodite. Now, the love who accompanies Common Aphrodite is certainly common, and his effects are totally random; this is the Love which ordinary people experience. In the first place, they love women as well as boys; secondly, when they do fall in love they’re attracted to the bodies rather than the minds of the people they love; thirdly, the reason they’re attracted to the most unintelligent people imaginable is that all they’re after is the satisfaction of their desires and they don’t care whether or not their desires are properly satisfied†¦ On the other hand, the Love which accompanies Celestial Aphrodite is wholly male, with no trace of femininity. (This, then, is the Love which is for boys, and a second point to note is that the provenance of this Love is the goddess who is older and incapable of treating people brutally.) That is why this Love’ inspiration makes people feel affection for what is inherently stronger and moreShow MoreRelatedEssay On Masculinity972 Words   |  4 Pagesself-esteem. While answering the question â€Å"how does violence relate to masculinity?† it is important that we examine the pressures of both societal and cultural norms. To do so, we must look at possible influences such as media, as well as explore the link between violent behavior and possible threats towards one’s masculinity. In a study done by Dennis Reidy, it was found that committing violent crimes was at a higher rate in men who â€Å"consider themselves less than truly masculine or anxious as a result o fRead More Sex and Relationships Essay1497 Words   |  6 PagesWorld and 1984 incorporate the themes of sex and relationships. However, the way they are perceived in both novels is quite different. The main dichotomies occur in the function of sex for reproduction, in relationships, and in the concept of a family. However, what is surprising that although the two books can be considered diametrically opposite to each other, they seem to agree on the aversion to the human emotions that develop in a relationship and those that develop from sexual intercourse respectivelyRead MoreFight Club By Chuck Palahniuk922 Words   |  4 PagesIn his works, Sigmund Freud attempted to analyze what drives human function and its quirks. The movie â€Å"Fight Club†, a film adaptation of a novel written by Chuck Palahniuk, displays many of the theories that Freud introduced in his writings. The Unnamed Narrator can be viewed as a case study representing the way that Freud’s musings ca n take human form. The fight between the ID, the Ego, and the Superego are a driving force in Fight Club’s plot development. The main characters are on a continuousRead MoreInterracial Relationships1553 Words   |  7 Pagespeople wondering how and when black and white racism will end in America. Many solutions have been suggested, and one of the various solutions is black and white interracial relationships. Such relationships have recently been successful in the 21st century, which leads us to the definitive question: can interracial relationships help reduce black and white racism in the 21st century? Background of Situation In the earlier days of the 20th century, racism was largely black and white; today racism hasRead More Exploring Love in Shakespeare’s Sonnets Essay4114 Words   |  17 PagesIn Plato’s Symposium, the discussion on the nature of love between Socrates and his companions in the house of Agathon clearly discerns key ideas that Shakespeare uses in the sonnets. Beauty, youth, and love are all topics of discussion in the conversations, and Plato’s ideas show up again and again when the sonnets are explored. In Symposium, Aristophanes gives a detailed description of a time when humans were not in their present physical form (Plato 353). His tale posits that the original formRead MoreFamily Environment And Life Satisfaction Essay1105 Words   |  5 Pageslife’s conditions, as it was desired to study the relationship between family environment and life satisfaction. The sample for the present study consisted of 50 college going adolescents residing in Bhopal city. Family Environment Scale by Moos Moos(1974) and Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Diener et al (1985) were employed to assess family environment and life satisfaction. It was expected that there would be a positive correlation between life satisfaction and family environment. Key words:Read MoreThe Thematic Apperception Test ( Tat )1322 Words   |  6 Pagestheir external expression, and inflated self-esteem. The results concluded that adolescent sexual offender is characterized as a unique individual, a result of a stunted developmental process. Some sex offenders have deviant fantasies and the strong desire to act on them. There have been instances where some sexual fantasies were actually carried out. Male and female juvenile sex offenders often exhibit behavior that is sexually abusive at a young age; some of their unfortunate and innocent victimsRead More Essay on Stagnant Lives in Streetcar Named Desire and Glass Menagerie1196 Words   |  5 PagesStagnant Lives in Streetcar Named Desire and Glass Menagerie   Ã‚  Ã‚   The Stagnant Lives of Blanche DuBois and Amanda Wingfield  Ã‚  Ã‚   All of Williams significant characters are pathetic victims--of time, of their own passions, of immutable circumstance (Gantz 110). This assessment of Tennessee Williams plays proves true when one looks closely at the characters of Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire and Amanda Wingfield in The Glass Menagerie. Their lives run closely parallel to one anotherRead MoreThe Revolution Is Us By David C. Stone1500 Words   |  6 Pagesthat it only tells a single story of what it means to be Cuban under the Revolution. In this instance she is referring to this Pacheco, who in the mind tells the story of what it means to be Cuban in the eyes of a manipulative government. Pacheco is a man who mentions that he would die for the revolution and feels that he in forever indented or at the service of the Revolution. Later on in this section Guerra mentions the â€Å"absence of all the most integrated Cubans from the collection deliberately providesRead MoreThe Self, The Mediator By Nathaniel Hawthorne1237 Words   |  5 Pagessin, guilt and revenge, respectively. Hester’s uncontrollable desires, Dimmesdale’s everlasting guilt and Chillingworth’s extreme obsession with revenge all convey the Freudian concepts of consciousness. According to the concepts, every person has an id, ego and superego; the id is the primitive part of a personality which immediately responds to a person’s desires. In order to suppress the id, the ego and superego decides which desires can or cannot be satisfied by evaluating the physical consequences

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Research on corporate accountability report - Myassignmenthelp.Com

Questions: 1. From your firms, financial statement, list each item of equity and write your understanding of each item. Discuss any changes in each item of equity for your firm over the past year articulating the reasons for the change. 2. What is your firms' tax expense in its latest financial statements? 3. Is this figure the same as the company tax rate times your firms accounting income? Explain why this is, or is not, the case for your firm. 4. Comment on deferred tax assets/liabilities that is reported in the balance sheet articulating the possible reasons why they have been recorded. 5. Is there any current tax assets or income tax payable recorded by your company? Why is the income tax payable not the same as income tax expense? 6. Is the income tax expense shown in the income statement same as the income tax paid shown in the cash flow statement? If not why is the difference? 7. What do you find interesting, confusing, surprising or difficult to understand about the treatment of tax in your firms financial statements? What new insights, if any, have you gained about how companies account for income tax as a result of examining your firms tax expense in its accounts? Answers: Answer 1: As evident from the annual report of Nextdc Limited it is found that under the heads of Equity the company reported a contributed equity of 524,458 for the year ended 30 June 2017 while in the following year of 2016 the company reported an equity of 375,507. Under the heads of equity, the company reported reserves of 4,990 for the year 2017 in respect to the figures of 3,534 for the year 2016. The company also reported an accumulated loss of (22,917) for the year ended 2017 whereas the previous year figures stood (45,913). The ordinary shares remain entitled to the shareholder so that can participate in the dividends together with the earnings on closure of the business in respect to the number of and values that is paid on the shares that is held (Smith 2014). Answer 2: The income tax expenses that is reported by the company for the year ended 2017 stood 10,172. Answer 3: The income tax expenditure that is reported during the accounting year is the tax that is payable on the present period of assessable revenue. This is depending upon the applicable amount of the income tax rate in Australia together with the accustomed alterations in the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities that is attributable to the provisional differences and the idle tax losses (Zadek, Evans and Pruzan 2013). The current amount of tax that is charged is computed based on the laws of tax that is incorporated or practically endorsed during the conclusion of the accounting period. The management of the corporation intermittently assess the position that is taken in the tax returns concerning the situations that is applicable in the tax regulations that is subjected to regulations. The tax rate reported by the company in respect to the accounting income stood at a rate of 30% with no change in the percentage of tax for the company. Answer 4: The deferred tax assets that is reported by the firm on the end of the accounting year 30 June 2017 stood 15,030 while in the year 2016 the total amount of deferred tax assets that is reported by the company stood 5,471. On the other hand, the total amount of deferred tax liabilities that has been reported by the corporation on the end of the accounting year 30 June 2017 stood 2,429 while in the previous year of 2,657. The deferred tax assets that is identified for deductible provisional differences and idle amount of tax losses given that it is likely that the forthcoming amount tax would be obtainable to use the provisional differences and losses (Lys, Naughton and Wang 2015). The deferred amount of tax assets and liabilities is usually offset when there is lawfully enforceable right in order to offset the present tax assets along with the liabilities and when the deferred balance is associated with the identical taxation authority (Christensen 2015). Additionally, the current tax assets and the current tax liabilities that is reported by the company is offset when the company has lawfully enforceable right to offset and would intend to either one of the net base or with the objective of realising the asset and resolve the liability concurrently. Answer 5: The current amount of tax that is payable on the profit generated by the company on the end of the accounting year 30 June 2017 stood $4,424. The income tax payable is not as same as the income tax expenses because the current tax payable is identified in the profit and loss, excluding the extent to which it is associated with the items that is identified in the other comprehensive income or it is directly in equity (Busco et al. 2013). In this case, the current amount of tax payable is identified in the other comprehensive income or unswervingly under the equity correspondingly. Answer 6: The taxable income expenses that is reported by the company in the income statement stood 10,172 whereas it is noteworthy to denote that the no amount of tax expenses is reported by the firm in the statement of cash flow. The company did not report any income tax expenses in the statement of cash flow because there are certain transactions and computations that has been undertaken in the ordinary business course for the reason of this the ultimate amount of tax determination is not certain (Deegan 2013). Therefore, it can considered that the company has not reported an income tax expenses in the cash flow since the uncertainty of the transactions during the ordinary course of business and an appropriate judgement is needed in the determination of the provision for income taxes. Answer 7: On an interesting note it is learnt that the current amount of income tax that is charged is computed by the company based on the tax laws that has been legislated or fundamentally applied following the end of the reported in Australia. Interestingly the management of the firm on periodical basis assess the positions undertaken in determination of the tax returns concerning the situations in which the applicable amount of tax regulations is subjected to interpretations (Christensen 2015). However, there were difficulties in understanding the tax expenses payable by the company since the statement of cash flow did not stated the amount which the company has paid. On an important note it is found that the company was uncertain regarding the transactions that would take place in the ordinary course of the business and it was difficult to understand that the appropriate judgement was required by the firm in ascertaining the provision of income tax. Considerably on an interesting note the deferred tax assets that was identified for the purpose of deductions represented the temporary differences and the unused amount of tax losses represents the future amount of tax that would be available to make use of the temporary differences and losses (Ramanna 2013). The company identifies the deferred tax in the profit and loss given the extent to which it is associated with the items identified in the additional comprehensive statement of income or in equity directly. Reference Busco, C., Frigo, M.L., Quattrone, P. and Riccaboni, A., 2013. Redefining corporate accountability through integrated reporting: What happens when values and value creation meet?.Strategic Finance,95(2), pp.33-42. Christensen, D.M., 2015. Corporate accountability reporting and high-profile misconduct.The Accounting Review,91(2), pp.377-399. Christensen, D.M., 2015. Corporate accountability reporting and high-profile misconduct.The Accounting Review,91(2), pp.377-399. Deegan, C., 2013.Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Lys, T., Naughton, J.P. and Wang, C., 2015. Signaling through corporate accountability reporting.Journal of Accounting and Economics,60(1), pp.56-72. Ramanna, K., 2013. A framework for research on corporate accountability reporting.Accounting Horizons,27(2), pp.409-432. Smith, N.C., 2014.Morality and the Market (Routledge Revivals): Consumer Pressure for Corporate Accountability. Routledge. Zadek, S., Evans, R. and Pruzan, P., 2013.Building corporate accountability: Emerging practice in social and ethical accounting and auditing. Routledge.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Raising Young Genii Learning Several Languages in the Early Years

Introduction: In the Most Tender Age Plunging into the second-language environment can be considered quite a stressful ordeal for a person, no matter how well (s)he can adapt to the new surroundings, with the language issue at the top of all the complexities that may possibly arise. Rather uncomfortable experience for an adult, the given situation should be traumatizing for a child as well, which the necessity to offer the strategies of foreign language mastering in the early years is predetermined with.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Raising Young Genii: Learning Several Languages in the Early Years specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because of the difference in the vision of the world, the pace of the intellectual development and a number of other factors, children display a different attitude towards learning two or more languages as compared to the adults (Nikolov, 2009). However, because of the complexities c onnected with teaching children second foreign language, the arguments against the given issue may arise. Therefore, it is necessary to figure out whether the early foreign languages teaching is reasonable enough, taking into account the existing theories. Multilingualism and Competent Language Learning When speaking of the teaching at the tender age, it is necessary to provide the definition for the given stage of a child’s development and draw the line between the early years and the childhood. In the given case, it would be most reasonable to resort to the definition offered by an early age stretches from the day of birth to the age of three, suggesting that at the given stage, â€Å"there is a gradual development of features that become recognized as ‘adult second language acquisition’ after approximately age 7† (Philp, Oliver and Mackey, 2008, p.27). However, some researchers, like Whitehead (2010), tend to think that the cognized learning takes place at the age from 0 to 7 (p.218). Whet talking about the process of teaching children the foreign language, the competent language learning is to be differentiated from the phenomenon of bi- and multilingualism, since the latter does not presuppose a conscious process and, hence, cannot be considered learning, as Knapp Seidhofer (2009) explain: â€Å"On a societal level, multiculturalism can be defined as the presence of more than one language in the society† (p.54). Taking a Theoretical Approach: Learning the Ideas of the Coryphaei When speaking about the issue of teaching the youngest children foreign languages, one must consider the arguments pro and contra the given idea. Obviously, teaching children of tender age does have its benefits, yet there are considerable difficulties in helping small children master a foreign language. With that in mind, it is necessary to consider several theories concerning the second language teaching tactics as well as the advantages and the drawbacks that such children possess from the viewpoint of a foreign language teacher. When considering various aspects of teaching children several languages in their earliest years, it would be most reasonable to consider several viewpoints, thus, offering an extensive overview of the existing opinions on the given issue. Since the given question is rather disputable and requires thorough considerations, the versatility of opinions is more than welcomed in the given case.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the first people whose ideas are to be considered is Jerome Bruner. Offering rather specific approach to the given issue, the researcher claimed that the language issue and the family relationships are closely intertwined and are actually interdependent on each other. Therefore, Bruner’s theory correlates with the idea that, together with the language skills, children obtain the necessary communicational skills that help them reach their top in the society and become its decent members (Harris, 1992). Judging from the notorious example driven by Rymer (1992), people who have not been taught to use the language and the linguistic tools properly are highly unlikely to ever integrate into the society and even survive. Therefore, obtaining the necessary experience from his/her parents, a child also gets the required language skills which are supposed to help him/her in the nearest future and contribute to his/her development: â€Å"As Bruner expresses it, the child’s knowledge of the social context – and especially of the routines that occur with it – assists the child to â€Å"crack the code† of the language that accompanies social interaction† (35). Hence, it is obvious that the scientist intertwines the aspects of learning the language and integrating into the society, thus, broadening the list of the communicati onal skills. Another important idea was offered by Piaget (Beilin Pufall, 1992) and suggested quite a different perception of the role of the language in a child’s development. According to Paiget, Beilin Pufall (1992) claim, children of rather young age demonstrate keen understanding of the linguistic issues that are rather complicated and require thorough explanations to elder children and teenagers. As Beilin Pufall (1992) claim, after the exploration that was held by Piaget, â€Å"the results of the experiments, especially in the production task, showed parallels in the way 6- and 7-year-old children constructed this type of semantic invariance and their construction of quantitative invariants† (219). Claiming that children build certain schemes that allow them to operate the language and use it correctly, the scientist emphasizes the necessity to contribute to the early development of children, enhancing their need to acquire new linguistic knowledge (Beilin P ufall, 1992). The last, but not the least, the theory that Gardner offers is also worth certain discussions. Basing his ideas on his own vision of the way children develop and the role that language plays in the given process, the author focuses his attention on the multiple aspects of knowledge that learning several languages in childhood presupposes. According to the definition offered by the scientist himself,Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Raising Young Genii: Learning Several Languages in the Early Years specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I would also like to introduce the concept of an individual-centered school that takes this multifaceted view of intelligence seriously. This model for a school is based in part on findings from sciences that did not even exist in Binet’s time: cognitive sciences (the study of the mind) and neuro-science (the study of the brain). One such approach I have called my â €Å"theory of multiple intelligences.† (Gardner 48) Hence, the last theory is based on the cultural versatility that studying foreign languages offers. Incorporating the three above-mentioned theories, one can offer a synthesis that makes the ultimate proof that studying foreign languages in early age is crucial for the development of a child. Since the learning of foreign languages has the positive impact on the child’s general development and also offers the basis for the future harmonic coexistence with the other nations, studying foreign languages at early age is essential for a child. Fast Learning: The Privilege of Children Despite the skeptical doubts of the people who think that young children too inexperienced to handle the task of learning another langue, some scientists claim that at the young age, most children possess the specific kills that allow them to absorb the specific knowledge instantly without any misconceptions. Caused by the specific way that sm all children cognize the environment with, it brings astounding results. As Singleton Lengyel (1995) assert, â€Å"there can be no doubt that children at an early age, especially in natural contexts, but also in tutored contexts, can learn and do learn secondary languages† (77). Indeed, studying the second language at the early age has its benefits in terms of the speed and the quality of the studying process. According to what Benson Haith (2009) say, children from 0 to 7 years obviously pass the stage that involves an unbelievable accelerated development, which predetermines the children’s ability to master a foreign language almost instantly: â€Å"The assumption underlying both of those is that the early years constitute, if not a critical period, an important window of opportunity to maximize likelihood of mastering a musical instrument or learning a second language† (p.144). Indeed, considering the behaviorist theory of human development and the fact tha t children tend to copy the people surrounding them with an amazing precision, one can claim that teaching young children the basics of foreign languages can be considered rather sensible idea by â€Å"theoretical questioning of behaviorist theories of language learning†(Ellis, 1990, p.44). In addition, according to Ellis (1990, p.44), a number of other theories approved of teaching children at quite a young age: â€Å"the vast majority of the studies examined either pure naturalistic or mixed L2 acquisition† (1990, p.44).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When reconsidering the significance of teaching children various languages at the earliest stages of their development, the notorious case of Genie, the feral child who is known to be the most striking example of the progressing underdevelopment experienced by a child whose ability to talk has been suppressed and who had no chance to develop their skills for mastering the language since the day they were born. As Rymer (1992) emphasizes, there is a constant urge in developing the language skills within any human being, and the level of mastering the language predetermines the level of self-development. Rymer (1992) explained that â€Å"Investigations of Genie’s brain unveiled the utter dominance of her â€Å"spatial† right hemisphere over her â€Å"linguistic† left†¦ This may have been why she was unable to grasp grammar–because she was using the wrong equipment†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Rymer, 1992, p.43). Hence, the necessity to develop children’s abi lity to use various language tools efficiently is crucial for their further mental development. On a Second Thought: Avoiding the Pitfalls It is evident that without the proper development of the linguistic skills and the ability to talk correctly, using the language in the proper way, a child is highly unlikely to develop in a normal way; moreover, the most dreadful consequences, such as the process of mental retardation, the complexities in adapting to the environment and the society that surrounds the given child, and the ability to communicate his/her own needs and wants is inevitable. Moreover, the shift in the mental development of a child is highly unlikely to ever cease and is extremely complicated to fight, which predetermines the necessity to teach children the linguistic skills at rather young age (Bialystok, Luk Kwan, 2005). However, even though the early development of children’s linguistic skills does seem crucial for their further well-being and the ability to adapt to the society and social norms, the question concerning the reasonability of teaching very young children the second language arises. According to what Rapaport and Westgate (1974) claim, there are no obvious contra-indications for children o be taught foreign languages at the earliest stages of their development. As the scientists assert, when a teacher chooses the right methods for teaching children the skills that will allow them to master a foreign language, such children start developing better and faster, which signifies that they are integrating into the society more quickly than the rest of the children of their age group, which must be a clear-cut evidence that studying a foreign language at the early age is desirable. As Rapaport and Westgate (1974) say, learning the foreign language at early age helps to overcome cultural controversies: There has also been a revival of interest in the â€Å"horizon-broadening aspect,† the notion of a foreign language as a h ealthy antidote to an otherwise monocultural education of young children. Prejudice derives from ignorance, and in the current world context a wholly ethnocentric view of culture and education has no place. (12) Hence, it cannot be denied that teaching children foreign languages at the early stages of development is crucial for the children’s vision of the world. Offering children studying another language equals to teaching them cultural and ethical tolerance. Therefore, the importance of teaching young children foreign languages cannot be disputed. The Helping Hand of the Professionals: The Analysis Analyzing the above-mentioned approaches towards teaching young children foreign language, one must admit that the reasons of the authoritative sources are quite impressive. According to the evidence provided by the authors of the existing theories of speech development and the significance of foreign language learning, the more languages a child can master, the better. Certainl y, no instances of forced foreign language learning should occur, for the child may be reluctant from studying foreign language in the future and even feel aversion towards learning new languages (Bocher, 2003). Nevertheless, it cannot be doubted that the necessity to offer a child to acquire new language skills is quite important for the further development of his/her personality. Moreover, when considering the development of children’s language and communication skills, especially concerning the second language, on must keep in mind that the process of cognizing another culture and another language is rather fragile and requires a delicate approach. As Nolan (2004) warns, â€Å"In school, when children from marginalized discourses are required to produce language, the judgments about their linguistic abilities that (even if unspoken) are already in the classroom serve to undermine their motivation† (p.43). Therefore, teaching children the second language is not only the constant, irreversible process of development, but also a range of conflicting situations that require immediate solution (Saunders-Semonsky, 2004). Conclusion: When It Comes to Understanding According to the evidence provided by scientists and researchers, learning foreign languages at early age is not only a harmless, but also a highly desirable activity. Owing to the courses of the second language that children take at the age up to 7, their communication skills, as well as their mental development, are constantly progressing. Therefore, it cannot be doubted that with the help of teaching children foreign languages at the age from 1 to 7, one will be able to help the child achieve comprehensive development, which will contribute to his/her future success and emotional comfort. References Beilin, H., Pufall, P. B., 1992. Piaget’s theory: Prospects and possibilities. New York, NY: Routledge. Benson, J. B., Haith, M. M., 2009. Language, memory, and cognition in infancyà ‚  and early childhood. Waltham, MA: Academic Press. Bocher, S., Jones, J., 2003. Child language development: Learning to talk. New York, Y: John Wiley Sons. Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Kwan, E. (2005). Bilingualism, biliteracy, and learning to read: Interactions among languages and writing systems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(1), pp.43-61. Ellis, R., 1990. Instructed second language acquisition: Learning in the classroom.  New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell. Gardner, H., 2006. The development and education for the mind: The selected works  of Howard Gardner. New York, NY: TaylorFrancis. Harris, M., 1992. Language experience and early language development: From input  to uptake. New York, NY: Psychology Press. Knapp, K., Seidhofer, B., 2009. Handbook of foreign language communication and  learning. Berlin, DE: Walter de Gruyer. Nikolov, M., 2009. The age factor and early language learning. Berlin, DE: Walter de Gruyer. Nolan, K., 2004. The power of language: A critique of th e assumptions and pedagogical implications of Howard Gardner’s concept of linguistic intelligence. In Joe J. Kincheloe, Multiple intelligences reconsidered. Bern, CH: Peter Lang. Philp, J., Oliver, R., Mackley, A., 2008. Second language acquisition and the  younger learner. Amsterdam, NL: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Rapaport, B., Westgate, D. P. G., 1974. Children learning French: An attempt at  first principles. New York, NY: Taylor Francis. Rymer, R., 1992. II-A silent childhood. The New Yorker, p. 43 Web. Available at:  https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1992/04/20/ii-a-silent-childhood . Saunders-Semonsky, C. M., Spielberger, M. A., 2004. Early language learning: A  model for success. Charlotte, NC: IAP. Singleton, D. M., Lengyel, Z., 1995. The age factor in second language acquisition:  A critical look at the critical period hypothesis. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Whitehead, M. R., 2010. Language and literacy in the early years 0-7. Thousand O aks, CA: SAGE Publications, Ltd. This essay on Raising Young Genii: Learning Several Languages in the Early Years was written and submitted by user Justus Rowland to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.