Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Brief History of Art Therapy

A BRIEF HISTORY OF ART THERAPY Randy M. Vick This business relationship of invention th agepy foc wonts on the precursory and continuing trends that learn shaped the theory and utilisation and the literature that confers this instruction. Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by new(prenominal)s. I am indebted to the authors of four new(prenominal) histories that I found to be especi eachy single-valued functionful in the preparation of this chapter.Both Malchiodi (1998) and Rubin (1999) have assembled histories based on contributing trends, as did Junge and Asawa (1994) who have pro-vided extensive details on the personalities and government operation involved in the formation of the American fraud Therapy Association. My fourth main(a) source (MacGregor, 1989), while never intended as a take roughly fine dodge litigate therapy, has proven to be an excel-lent prehistory of the subject argona. Each of these references provided info as well as inspiration and I encourage readers to reflect them for additional perspectives.Finally, it should be noted here that guileistic production therapy was not a phenomenon exclusive to the United States. Readers interested in invention therapys development in Europe should consult Wallers (1991, 1998) dickens books on this subject. History is like a tapestry with each colored thread contributing not al unitedly to the formation of the image but to the strength and structure of the fabric it egotism. deem for a moment a tapestry with bobbins of different-colored threads, each adding a change that becomes p ruse of a bracing creation, and we can better understand the history of this sports stadium.INFLUENCES FROM THE DISTANT PAST AND NEIGHBORING FIELDS subterfuge therapy is a crisscross discipline based primarily on the line of business of cunning and psychology, draft copy characteristics from each parent to evolve a unique newfangled entity. entirely the inter weavi ng of the stratagems and healing is hardly a new phenomenon. It seems clear that this pairing is as old as benevolent rescript itself, having occurred repeatedly byout our history across place and time (Malchiodi, 1998).The development of the profession of guile therapy can be seen as the formal finish of a long- stand human tradi-tion influenced by the intellectual and social trends of the twentieth carbon (Junge & Asawa, 1994). 1 From the Realms or Art Art making is an innate human tendency, so much so it has been argued that, like speech and tool making, this activity could be used to de very well our species (Dissana-yake, 1992). In his book, The Discovery of the Art of the Insane, MacGregor (1989) presents a history of the interplay of trick and psychology spanning the last 300 years.This history covers theories of hero and insanity, biographies of mad artists, depictions of madness by artists, and the several(a) attempts to reach an understanding of the electric pot ential art has as an aid to kind health preaching and diagnosis. In 1922, German psychiatrist Hans Prinzhorn (1922/1995) published The Artistry of the Men-tally III, a book that depict and keyd the artistic productions of residents of in-sane asylums across Europe. This institute challenged both psychiatric and fine arts professionals to reconsider their notions of psychological illness and art (MacGregor, 1989).Even today, give rages within the field variously titled outsider art/art brut/visionary art/folk art as experts bark to place clear by self-taught artists ( most of whom have experienced psychological illness) within the art historical canon (Borum, 1993/1994 Russell, 2002). contemporaneous writers from art therapy and other disciplines endure to explore the notion of art practice for the mean of personal geographic expedition and growth (Alien, 1995 Cameron & Bryan, 1992 C.Moon, 2002) and to reevaluate the traditional boundaries mingled with personal and public art (Lachman-Chapin et al. , 1999 Sigler, 1993 Spaniol, 1990 Vick, 2000). Medicine, Health, and Rehabilitation Hospitals have long served as important incubators for the field of art therapy. For better or worse, medical model models such as diagnosis, disease, and treatment have had a strong influence on the development of or so schools of thought within Western psychotherapy, including art therapy.While psychiatry has incessantly been the medical specialty most(prenominal) closely allied with the field, art therapists have worked with patients being treated for AIDS, asthma, burns, cancer, chemical dependency, trauma, tuberculosis, and other medical and rehabilitation necessarily (Malchiodi 1999a, 1999b). Our understanding of the interplay amid biochemistry, mental status, and creativity continues to evolve and a new medical specialty, arts medicine, has recently emerged 2 (Malchiodi, 1998). All this seems to fire that art therapy will continue to have a fiber in ex ploring the connections between body and mind.TRENDS IN 19TH- AND 20TH-CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY For much of human history mental illness was regarded with fear and misunderstanding as a manifestation of both divine or demonic forces. Reformers such as Rush in the United States and Pinel in France make great strides in creating a much humane environment for their patients. Freud, flexure, and others contributed to this rehumanization by theorizing that rather than being random nonsense, the productions of head game revealed significant information about the unique interior(a) world of their manufacturing business (MacGregor, 1989 Rubin, 1999).Building on these theories, many writers began to examine how a specific consort of creative productartcould be under-stood as an illustration of mental health or disturbance (Anastasi & Foley, 1941 Arnheim, 1954 Kreitler & Kreitler, 1972). Other authors began recognizing the po-tential art has as a tool within treatment (Winnicott, 1971). Soon enough, the term art therapy began to be used to secernate a form of psychotherapy that placed art practices and interventions alongside talk as the central modality of treatment (Naumburg, 1950/1973).The import psychoanalytic writers placed on primeval childhood experiences made the crosswalk of these theories into education an easy one (Junge & Asawa, 1994). Some progressive educators placed detail emphasis on the affair art played in the general development of children (Cane, 1951/1983 Kellogg, 1969 Lowenfeld, 1987 Uhlin, 1972/1984). This trend toward the remediation application of art within educational settings continues today (Anderson, 1978/1992 Bush, 1997 Henley, 1992).PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH In addition to analytic thinking and the rehumanization of people with mental illness, one of the strongest trends to emerge within modern psychology has been the focus on standardized methods of diagnostic assessment and research. Whether discussing the work of a studio artist or the productions of a mentally ill individual, Kris (1952) argues that they both engage in the same psychic process, that is, the placing of an inner experience, an inner image, into the outside world (p. 115). This method of projection became the conceptual foundation for a dazzling array of so-called projective drawing assessments that evolved in psychology during the 20th century (Hammer, 1958/1980). These simple paper-and-pencil tests, with their formalized procedures and standardized methods of interpretation, became widely used in the evaluation and diagnosis of children and adults and are still go fored to a lesser degree today (though often with revamped purpose and procedure). Two parallel themes from this era are the relatively unstructured methods of art assessment (Elkisch, 1948 Shaw, 1934) and the various climb upes to rendition these productions (Machover, 1949/1980).The impact of psychoanalysis on the early development of art therapy was pro-found . Hammers (1958/1980) classical book on drawing as a projective device ornaments the renewing within this area and the inclusion of two chapters on art therapy by pioneering art therapist Margaret Naumburg demonstrates the crossover of influences. Many of the more common stereotypes about art therapy (specific, assigned drawings finger painting and the role of the therapist in divining the true meaning of the drawings) can, in fact, be traced directly to this era.Nearly all the major art therapy writers from this time developed their own methods of assessment consisting of batteries of art tasks with varying levels of structure (Kramer & Schehr, 1983 Kwiatkowska, 1978 Rubin, 1978/1984 Ulman & Dachinger, 1975/1996). Even today, the notion that artworks in some personal manner reflect the psychic experience of the artist is a fundamental concept in art therapy. Despite this common history, there are distinctions between the flak to assessment used in psychology and that found i n art therapy.The key difference is the art therapy perspective that the making and view of the art have inherent therapeutic potential for the customer, a nonplus not necessarily held by psychometricians. In addition, art therapists tend to use more varied and expressive satisfyings and to de mark formalized verbal directives and stress the role of clients as interpreters of their own work. Finally, art therapists are similarly quite apt(predicate) to improvise on the pro-tocol of standardized assessments to uit a particular clinical purpose (Mills & Goodwin, 1991). An emerging theme in the literature is the unique role the creative arts therapies can play in the assessment and evaluation of clients (Bruscia, 1988 Feder & Feder, 1998). modern developers of art therapy assessments have aban maked ortho-dox psychoanalytic approaches in favor of methods that stress the expressive potential 4 of the tasks and materials (Cohen, Hammer, & Singer, 1988 Cox Frame, 1993 Gantt & Tab one, 1997 Landgarten, 1993 Silver, 1978/1989).Early art therapy researchers also looked to psychology and embraced its empiri-cal approach for their research (Kwiatkowska, 1978). more recently, models from the behavioral sciences and other fields have been used as resources in conducting art therapy research (Kaplan, 2000 McNiff, 1998 Wadeson, 1992). THE learning OF THE ART THERAPY LITERATURE The development of any discipline is best traced through the evolution of that fields literature. The historians convention of artificially dividing time into segments is employed here to illustrate three phases of growth in the profession of art therapy.Classical geological period (1940s to 1970s) In the middle of the 20th century a largely self-sufficing assortment of individuals began to use the term art therapy in their writings to describe their work with clients. In doing so, these pioneering individuals began to define a discipline that was distinct from other, elder professions. B ecause there was no formal art therapy training to be had, these early writers were trained in other fields and mentored by psychiatrists, analysts, and other mental health professionals.The four leading writers universally recognized for their contributions to the development of the field during this period are Margaret Naumburg, Edith Kramer, Hanna Kwiatkowska, and Elinor Ulman. The lasting impact of their original works on the field is demonstrated by the fact that their writings continue to be used as original sources in modern art therapy literature. More than any other author, Naumburg is seen as the primary founder of American art therapy and is frequently referred to as the Mother of Art Therapy (see Junge & Asawa, 1994, p. 22).Through her early work in the innovative Walden School, which she founded (along with her sister Florence Cane), and later in psychi-atric settings she developed her ideas and, in the 1940s, began to write about what was to become known as art therap y (Detre et al. , 1983). well-known(prenominal) with the ideas of both Freud and Jung, Naumburg (1966/1987) conceived her dynamically oriented art therapy to be largely uniform to the psychoanalytic practices of the day. The clients art productions were viewed as symbolic communication of unconscious material in a direct, uncensored, and concrete form that Naumburg (1950/1973) argued would aid in the stoppage of the transference. While Naumburg borrowed heavily from the techniques of psychoanalytic practice, Kramer took a different approach by adapting concepts from Freuds personality theory to explain the art therapy process. Her art as therapy approach emphasizes the intrinsic therapeutic potential in the art-making process and the central role the defense mechanism of sublimation plays in this experience (Kramer, 1971/1993).Kramers (1958, 1971/1993) work in therapeutic schools (as opposed to Naumburgs psychiatric emphasis) allows for more direct application of her ideas to edu cational settings. Ulmans most outstanding contributions to the field have been as an editor and writer. She founded The Bulletin of Art Therapy in 1961 (The American Journal of Art Therapy after 1970) when no other publication of its kind existed (Junge &c Asawa, 1994). In addition, Ulman (along with her coeditor Dachinger) (1975/1996) published the premier(prenominal) book of collected essays on art therapy that served as one of the few texts in the field for many years.Her gift as a writer was to on the button synthesize and articulate complex ideas. In her essay Art Therapy Problems of Definition, Ulman (1975/1996) compares and contrasts Naumburgs art psychotherapy and Kramers art as therapy models so clearly that it continues to be the unambiguous presentation of this core theoretical continuum. The last of these four remarkable women, Kwiatkowska, made her major contributions in the areas of research and family art therapy. She brought together her experiences in various ps ychiatric settings in a book that became the foundation for working with families through art (Kwiatkowska, 1978).Like Kramer, she had fled Europe at the time of World contend II adding to the list of emigre thinkers who influenced the development of mental health disciplines in the United States. She also coauthored a short book that helped introduce the field of art therapy to the general public (Ulman, Kramer, & Kwiatkowska, 1978). Each of these pioneers lectured widely on the proceeds of art therapy and served as some of the fields first educators. It was also during this period that the first formal programs with degrees in art therapy were offered (Junge Asawa, 1994 Levick, Goldman, & Fink, 1967).Finally, it is important not to forget the other early pioneers working in other parts of the country, such as Mary Huntoon at the Menninger Clinic (Wix, 2000), who made contributions to the developing profession as well. 6 Middle Years Other Pioneering Writers (1970s to Mid-1980s) The 1970s through the mid-1980s saw the topic of an increasing number of publications that presented a broader range of applications and conceptual perspectives (Betensky, 1973 Landgarten, 1981 Levick, 1983 McNiff, 1981 Rhyne, 1973/ 1995 Robbins & Sibley, 1976 Rubin, 1978/1984 Wadeson, 1980), although psychoanalysis remained a dominant influence.The development of the literature was also enriched during this period with the introduction of two new journals Art mental hygiene in 1973 (called The Arts in Psychotherapy after 1980) and Art Therapy Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, in 1983 (Rubin, 1999). The in-creasing number of publications, along with the founding of the American Art Therapy Association in 1969, evolved the professional identity of the art therapist, credentials, and the role of art therapists vis-a-vis related professionals (Shoemaker et al. 1976). Contemporary Art Therapy Theories (Mid-1980s to Present) The art therapy literature continues to grow . In 1974, Gantt and Schmal published an annotated bibliography of sources relating to the topic of art therapy from 1940-1973 (1,175 articles, books, and papers), yet Rubin (1999) notes that in that same year there were only 12 books compose by art therapists, a number that crawled to 19 some 10 years later. By the mid-1980s this pace began to increase so that there are now more than 100 titles available.Rubin (1999) also speculates that art therapists may be more comfortable with an intuitive approach than other mental health practitioners because as artists they pride themselves on their innate sensitivities, and tend to be antiauthoritarian and anti-theoretical (p. 180). Recently, approximately 21% of art therapists surveyed by the American Art Therapy Association described their primary theoretical orientation as eclectic, the maven largest percentage account (Elkins & Stovall, 2000).This position is in keeping with one define by Wadeson (in Rubin, 1987/2001) and should no t be surprising in a field that itself draws from a variety of disciplines. The next five most frequently reported models psychodynamic (10. 1%), Jungian (5. 4%), object relations (4. 6%), art as therapy (4. 5%), and psychoanalytic (3. 0%) all place a strong emphasis on intrapsychic dynamics, and this cumulative 27. 6% suggests that much present-day(a) practice is still informed by generally psychodynamic concepts (Elkins & Stovall, 7 2000).In a landmark book, Approaches to Art Therapy first published in 1987, Rubin (1987/2001) brought together essays by authors representing the diversity of theoretical positions within the field. Perspectives from these and other relevant sources are briefly summarized here. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES The ideas of Freud and his followers (see Chapter 2, this volume) have been part of art therapy since the earliest days, although contemporary writers are more likely to apply terms such as transference and the defense mechanisms to articulate a positi on rather than employ classic psychoanalytic techniques ith any degree of orthodoxy. Kramer, Rubin, Ulman, and Wilson (all cited in Rubin, 1987/2001) and Levick (1983) all use psychoanalytic language and concepts. Interpretations of the newer developments in psychoanalysis such as the theories of Klein (Weir, 1990), self psychology (Lachman-Chapin) and object relations theory (Robbins) can also be found in the art therapy literature (both cited in Rubin, 1987/2001).With his emphasis on images from the unconscious, it was natural for Jungs concepts of analytical and archetypal psychology to cross over into art therapy (see Chapter 2, this volume). Work by Edwards and Wallace (both cited in Rubin, 1987/ 2001), McConeghey (1986), and Schaverian (1992) all reflect this emphasis. HUMANISTIC APPROACHES Elkins and Stovall (2000) suggest that only a small number of art therapists operate from a humanistic position (among humanistic, Gestalt, existential, and client centered the highest resp onse was to the first folk with 2. 9).Yet if these approaches can be defined as sharing an hopeful view of human nature and of the human condition, seeing people in a process of growth and development, with the potential to take responsibility for their unavoidableness (Rubin, 1987/2001, p. 119), these figures belie a sentiment held by many art therapists (see Chapter 3, this volume). Garai (cited in Rubin, 1987/2001) has written from a general humanistic position, Rogers (1993) and Silverstone (1997) use a person-centered model, and Dreikurs (1986) and Garlock (cited in Rubin, 1987) have adapted ideas first articulated by Alfred Adier.Other models that pin tumbler under the humanistic heading include existential (B. 8 Moon, 1990/1995), phenomenological (Betensky, 1995), and gestalt (Rhyne, 1973/1995) approaches. culture AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES Perhaps because they are sensed to be mechanistic, those psychological theories that emphasize learning tend to be less popular w ith art therapists. In the Elkins and Stovall (2000) survey, cognitive-behavioral (see Chapter 6, this volume), cognitive, developmental (Chapter 8, this volume), and behavioral received an ndorsement of over 2%. Yet there are art therapy authors whose work has been informed by these theories. Silver (2000) has written extensively on assessment using a cognitive approach, and the work of Lusebrink (1990) and Nucho (1987) is based in general systems theory. Art therapists working with children with emotional and developmental disabilities have also adapted concepts from developmental (Aach-Feldman & Kunkle-Miller, cited in Rubin, 1987/2001 Williams & Wood, 1975) and behavioral psychology (Roth, cited in Rubin, 1987/2001).FAMILY THERAPY AND OTHER APPROACHES A number of writers (Landgarten, 1987 Linesch, 1993 Riley & Malchiodi, 1994 Sobol, 1982) have built on Kwiatkowskas early family work, particularly in California where art therapists become authorise as marriage and family therapi sts. Riley (1999) also incorporates concepts from narrative therapy into her work (Chapter 5, this volume). Relational (Dalley, Rifkind, & Terry, 1993) and libber (Hogan, 1997) approaches question the hierarchy in the client/therapist relationship and empower-ing the client and have also shaped contemporary art therapy practice.Publications by Horovitz-Darby (1994), Farrelly-Hansen (2001), and McNiff (1992) reflect an emphasis on spiritual and philosophical concepts over psychological theory. Frank-lin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, Swan-Foster, and Wallingford (2000) describe a transpersonal approach to art therapy. Alien (1992) called for a reversal of the perceived trend in overemphasizing the clinical orientation and encouraged art therapists to focus on their artist identity. Writings by Lachman-Chapin (1983) Knill (1995), who espouses an expressive arts therapies approach (Chapter 8, this volume) and C.Moon (2002) reflect this studio approach to theory and practice. 9 result Ever y art therapist knows there is much to be wise to(p) from the process of making an artwork as well as from standing back and viewing the finished product. The tapes-try that is art therapy is not a dust-covered relic hung in a museum but a living work in progress. There is pleasure in admiring the work that has already been done and excitement in the weaving. It is my hope that readers can appreciate the processes and the products that have shaped this profession. 10

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