Thursday, November 21, 2019

Bipolar Disorder Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Bipolar Disorder - Assignment Example 35). Most individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder experience episodes of mania (or, in other words, elevated moods) and depression during their whole lives. When people experience mixed episodes, it means they are depressed and manic at once. While having mixed episodes, individuals may feel wound up, as well as they may have racing thoughts and find it difficult to stay still, as typically found in mania. At the same time, these people feel hopeless and have suicidal thoughts, as in depression (Basco, 2005, p. viii). Clinical features of bipolar disorder are associated with the following symptoms of mania: reduced need for sleep, euphoria, as well as grandiosity. Additionally, individuals’ condition is characterized by mood instability, irritability, plus reactivity. The behavior may be aggressive and oppositional with serious temper tantrums (Cutler & Marcus, 2010, p. 481). Children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder demonstrate manic behavior, for example, they may defy a teacher and make attempts to gain control over the classroom. Some other features are masturbating somewhere in a public place, taking part in life-threatening ventures, having unsafe sex with few partners, etc. Individuals with bipolar disorder are not able to sit still, have bothering thoughts which they fail to organize, act in an overly confident manner, and often â€Å"move too fast† (Cutler & Marcus, 2010, p.481). Bipolar disorder is subdivided into the following types: bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia, and bipolar NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) (Blazer & Steffens, 2009, p.301). To be diagnosed with bipolar I, an individual must have had one or more manic episodes. The latter is an alteration in individual’s mood which is euphoric, irritable or extremely expansive. It lasts for a week or longer and is accompanied by the following symptoms: reduced need for sleep, lack of energy, pressured speech, having racing thoughts, etc. Depressive episodes a re not necessarily experienced, yet rather common (Blazer & Steffens, 2009, p.301). To be diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, individuals must have had at least one depressive episode occurring with at least one episode of hypomania. The latter involves at least four days of mood that is altering which is accompanied by the symptoms mentioned in the previous paragraph (Blazer & Steffens, 2009, p.301). Cyclothymia is diagnosed in patients with cycling moods which cannot be fully referred to as mania or depression. As for bipolar NOS, these are disorders which have bipolar features and cannot be fully interpreted as specific bipolar disorders (Blazer & Steffens, 2009, p.301). Bipolar disorders are especially common in individuals whose behavior is characterized by substance abuse. Specifically, Leahy provides data that â€Å"the rates of concominant alcohol and drug abuse may exceed 50% in younger men† (Leahy, 2006, p.35). The following case A clearly portrays bipolar disorder. A is a 38 y/o Caucasian female who reports long periods of depression within last 10 years. She describes having numerous episodes of feeling depressed along with 2 suicide attempts of medicine overdose. She reports losing lots of weight during those times and having considerable sleep problems, in particular having trouble falling asleep and having early wake-ups. The patient describes several periods within the last 3 years when she was able

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